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#iossecurity | #applesecurity | China state newspaper criticizes Apple for app use by Hong Kong protesters

Source: National Cyber Security – Produced By Gregory Evans

FILE PHOTO: The logo of Apple is seen at a store in Zurich, Switzerland January 3, 2019. REUTERS/Arnd Wiegmann/File Photo

HONG KONG (Reuters) – The Chinese Communist Party’s official newspaper, the People’s Daily, lashed out on Tuesday at Apple Inc for allowing an app on its app store that tracks the movement of police around Hong Kong and is used by protesters in ongoing and sometimes violent demonstrations.

In a commentary the newspaper did not mention the name of the location app, but it decried what it said was Apple’s complicity in helping the protesters and questioned whether Apple was “thinking clearly”.

One such map that is available on the Apple app store, the app, has become a lightning rod on Twitter for criticism and support of the protests. The developer did not immediately respond to a request for comment. On Saturday in a tweet they said that Apple had “many business considerations” but had “make thing(s) right.”

Apple is the latest foreign company to catch heat in relation to the pro-democracy protests in Hong Kong, which have lasted four months.

The National Basketball Association (NBA) and U.S. sports brand Vans also have become embroiled in controversies over the protests.

The piece on the website of the People’s Daily said Apple did not have a sense of right and wrong, and ignored the truth.

Making the App available on Apple’s Hong Kong app Store at this time was “opening the door” to violent protesters in the former British colony.

“Letting poisonous software have its way is a betrayal of the Chinese people’s feelings,” the paper said.

Apple did not respond to a request for a comment.

Reporting by Twinnie Siu in Hong Kong and Stephen Nellis in San Franisco; Editing by Peter Henderson and David Gregorio

Our Standards:The Thomson Reuters Trust Principles.

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#infosec #itsecurity #hacking #hacker #computerhacker #blackhat #ceh #ransomeware #maleware #ncs #nationalcybersecurityuniversity #defcon #ceh #cissp #computers #cybercrime #cybercrimes #technology #jobs #itjobs #gregorydevans #ncs #ncsv #certifiedcybercrimeconsultant #privateinvestigators #hackerspace #nationalcybersecurityawarenessmonth #hak5 #nsa #computersecurity #deepweb #nsa #cia #internationalcybersecurity #internationalcybersecurityconference #iossecurity #androidsecurity #macsecurity #windowssecurity

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#computersecurity | Blocking research with China would ‘hurt’, Microsoft boss says

Source: National Cyber Security – Produced By Gregory Evans

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Media captionWATCH: Satya Nadella on Microsoft’s work in China

Microsoft does more research and development in China than it does anywhere else outside the United States. But, as US-China relations continue to sour on issues of trade and cyber-security, the decades-long ties Microsoft has in China are coming under close scrutiny.

In an interview with BBC News, Microsoft’s chief executive Satya Nadella has said that despite national security concerns, backing out of China would “hurt more” than it solved.

“A lot of AI research happens in the open, and the world benefits from knowledge being open,” he said.

“That to me is been what’s been true since the Renaissance and the scientific revolution. Therefore, I think, for us to say that we will put barriers on it may in fact hurt more than improve the situation everywhere.”

Microsoft’s first office in China was opened by founder and then-chief executive Bill Gates in 1992. Its main location in Beijing now employs more than 200 scientists and involves over 300 visiting scholars and students. It is currently recruiting for, among other roles, researchers in machine learning.

In April, it was reported by the Financial Times that Microsoft researchers were collaborating with teams at China’s National University of Defence Technology, working on artificial intelligence projects that some outside observers warned could be used for oppressive means.

Speaking to the newspaper, Republican Senator Ted Cruz said: “American companies need to understand that doing business in China carries significant and deepening risk.”

He added: “In addition to being targeted by the Chinese Communist party for espionage, American companies are increasingly at risk of boosting the Chinese Communist party’s human rights atrocities.”

Technology as weapon

Mr Nadella acknowledged that risk.

“We know any technology can be a tool or a weapon,” he told the BBC.

“The question is, how do you ensure that these weapons don’t get created? I think there are multiple mechanisms. The first thing is we, as creators, should start with having a set of ethical design principles to ensure that we’re creating AI that’s fair, that’s secure, that’s private, that’s not biased.”

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Media captionMicrosoft’s CEO Satya Nadella spoke to the BBC in 2017: Judge us on value we add, not tax we pay

He said he felt his company had sufficient control over how the controversial emerging technologies are used, and said the firm had turned down requests in China – and elsewhere – to engage in projects it felt were inappropriate, due to either technical infeasibility or ethical concerns.

“We do have control on who gets to use our technology. And we do have principles. Beyond how we build it, how people use it is something that we control through Terms of Use. And we are constantly evolving the terms of use.

“We also recognise whether it’s in the United States, whether it’s in China, whether it’s in the United Kingdom, they will all have their own legislative processes on what they accept or don’t accept, and we will abide by them.”

‘Leaves me wondering…’

Matt Sheehan, from the Paulson Institute, studies the relationship between California’s technology scene and the Chinese economy. He said Microsoft’s efforts, particularly its Beijing office, have had tremendous impact.

“It dramatically advanced the field, advances that have helped the best American and European AI research labs push further,” he said.

“But those same advances feed into the field of computer vision, a key enabler of China’s surveillance apparatus.”

He cites one particular paper as highlighting the complexity of working with, and within, China. Deep Residual Learning for Image Recognition, published in 2016, was a research paper produced by four Chinese researchers working at Microsoft.

According to Google Scholar, which indexes research papers, their paper was cited more than 25,256 times between 2014-2018 – more than any other paper in any other field of research.

“The lead author now works for a US tech company in California,” said Mr Sheehan, referring to Facebook.

“Two other authors work for a company involved in Chinese surveillance. And the last author is trying to build autonomous vehicles in China.

“What do we make of all that? Honestly, it leaves me – and I think it should leave others – scratching their heads and wondering.”


Follow Dave Lee on Twitter @DaveLeeBBC

Do you have more information about this or any other technology story? You can reach Dave directly and securely through encrypted messaging app Signal on: +1 (628) 400-7370

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#hacker | #government | Trump publicly urges China to investigate Bidens amid impeachment inquiry

Source: National Cyber Security – Produced By Gregory Evans

WASHINGTON — President Donald Trump on Thursday urged another foreign government to probe former Vice President Joe Biden and his son Hunter, saying the Chinese government should look into Hunter Biden’s involvement with an investment fund that raised money in the country.

“China should start an investigation into the Bidens because what happened in China is just about as bad as what happened with Ukraine,” Trump told reporters outside the White House.

While Trump said he hasn’t asked Chinese President Xi Jinping to investigate the Bidens, the public call mirrors the private behavior on which Democrats are partially basing their impeachment inquiry — using the office of the presidency to press a foreign leader to investigate a political rival.

It is “certainly something we can start thinking about, because I’m sure that President Xi does not like being on that kind of scrutiny, where billions of dollars is taken out of his country by a guy that just got kicked out of the Navy,” Trump said Thursday of asking China to probe the Bidens. “He got kicked out of the Navy, all of the sudden he’s getting billions of dollars. You know what they call that? They call that a payoff.”

The U.S. in the midst of a tense trade war with China. The president, discussing progress on negotiations with Beijing on a possible trade agreement just moments before his remarks about the Bidens, told reporters that “if they don’t do what we want, we have tremendous power.”

Chinese officials will be in Washington next week in another attempt to revive talks, Trump said.

Trump, seeking to expand his corruption accusations against the Bidens beyond Ukraine, has in recent days repeatedly accused Hunter Biden of using a 2013 trip on Air Force Two with his father, then the vice president, to procure $1.5 billion from China for a private equity fund he had started.

Prior to Thursday, Trump had not called for an investigation into the matter. The White House declined to comment on Trump’s remarks.

Despite Trump’s accusations, there has been no evidence of corruption on the part of the former vice president or his son. In a statement, Biden’s deputy campaign manager and communications director, Kate Bedingfield, said the president “is flailing and melting down on national television, desperately clutching for conspiracy theories that have been debunked and dismissed by independent, credible news organizations.”

“As Joe Biden forcefully said last night, the defining characteristic of Donald Trump’s presidency is the ongoing abuse of power,” Bedingfield said. “What Donald Trump just said on the South Lawn of the White House was this election’s equivalent of his infamous ‘Russia, if you’re listening’ moment from 2016 — a grotesque choice of lies over truth and self over the country.”

Trump, during a 2016 campaign rally, encouraged the country to meddle in the 2016 election by trying to access Hillary Clinton’s emails, saying, “Russia, if you’re listening, I hope you’re able to find the 30,000 emails that are missing.”

Special counsel Robert Mueller’s Russia investigation found that within hours of Trump’s invitation, Russian military intelligence initiated a hack against Clinton’s office. Trump and his allies have said he wasn’t serious when he made the comment.

In pushing back on Trump, Biden’s campaign previously pointed to a fact-check from The Washington Post that found Trump’s claims false while tracing the origins of the $1.5 billion figure he has used to a 2018 book by conservative author Peter Schweizer.

In addition, Hunter Biden’s spokesman, George Mesires, told NBC News previously that Hunter Biden wasn’t initially an “owner” of the company and has never gotten paid for serving on the board. He said Hunter Biden didn’t acquire an equity interest in the fund until 2017, after his father had left office.

And when he did, he put in only about $420,000 — a 10 percent interest. That puts the total capitalization of the fund at the time at about $4.2 million — a far cry from the $1.5 billion that Trump has alleged.

Trump also said Thursday that he still wants Ukraine to conduct “a major investigation” into Joe and Hunter Biden.

“I would think that if they were honest about it, they would start a major investigation into the Bidens,” he said, adding, “They should investigate the Bidens.”

House Democrats have launched a formal impeachment inquiry against Trump centered on a July 25 phone call between him and the president of Ukraine during which Trump asked his Ukrainian counterpart to investigate the family of the former vice president, Trump’s possible 2020 opponent. The House is also looking into whether Giuliani’s overtures were proper and whether the White House was using almost $400 million in frozen aid to Ukraine as leverage.

The White House has since released a detailed description of the July call, while the House Intelligence Committee made public a lightly redacted version of the intelligence community whistleblower complaint that brought to light the allegations against Trump. The complaint alleged that Trump, in the July phone call, used the power of his office “to solicit interference from a foreign country” in the 2020 election.

The impeachment inquiry has unleashed a torrent of activity in the House and key cabinet agencies.

House Democrats have so far issued subpoenas for Trump’s personal lawyer Rudy Giuliani as well as for Secretary of State Mike Pompeo for Ukraine-related documents. They have also threatened the White House with subpoenas for Ukraine-related documents. And on Thursday, the Department of Defense said its general counsel had directed all agency offices and leadership to turn over any pertinent information dealing with military funding to Ukraine.

Democrats, meanwhile, immediately excoriated Trump’s latest comments Thursday as “unacceptable” and “indefensible,” suggesting that the president is only strengthening their case for impeachment.

“The president cannot use the power of his office to pressure foreign leaders to investigate his political opponents. His rant this morning reinforces the urgency of our work. America is a Republic, if we can keep it.” House Intelligence Committee Chairman Adam Schiff, D-Calif., said in a tweet.

Rep. Emanuel Cleaver, D-Mo., tweeted: “This is absolutely unacceptable. It’s clear the president understands he’s been caught red-handed and has now moved to normalize this kind of corrupt behavior.”

“GOP must speak out,” he added.

Rep. G.K. Butterfield, D-N.C., also had a message for Republican lawmakers.

“To my Republican colleagues, I implore you to listen to the words that came out of Trumps’ mouth this morning. From the SOUTH LAWN OF THE WHITE HOUSE,” he said on Twitter. “Think about the detrimental impact these actions will have on our democracy and our national security. This is indefensible.”

The remarks also elicited the attention of the top elections official in the U.S., Federal Election Commission Chair Ellen Weintraub, who re-shared a tweet she had posted in June explaining that “it is illegal for any person to solicit, accept, or receive anything of value from a foreign national in connection with a U.S. election.”

Weintraub had initially posted the tweet in June, after Trump said he’d consider taking information on opponents from other countries.

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China to #Continue #Cybersecurity Drills Within #SCO

TASHKENT(Sputnik) – China wants to further conduct cybersecurity exercises within the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure of Shanghai Cooperation Organization (RATS) of the SCO said Monday in a statement.

“Chao Shijian noted on the need to continue holding cybersecurity drills within the SCO framework,” RATS said in its statement.

Last week, Yevgeniy Sysoyev, the director of RATS SCO, met with the deputy head of the Information Department of the Chinese Ministry of Public Security, Chao Shijian, on the sidelines of a meeting of experts on fight against cybercrime.

Sysoyev stressed that the second joint cybersecurity drills of the SCO countries held in China in December were successful. The first such exercises were held in December 2015.
The SCO was set up in 2001 by the leaders of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. In June last year, the members of the organization formally approved the decision to accept India and Pakistan.

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Source: National Cyber Security News

General Cybersecurity Conference

 May 11 – 13, 2018 | Beijing, China

Cybersecurity Conference Description 

Started by the legend that is Dark Tangent (Jeff Moss) DEF CON (spelt like that, i..e two separate words) is, really, the world’s best known “hacker convention” or “hacker conference.” DEF CON is held every year in Las Vegas, Nevada, USA and the first DEF CON took place in June 1993 so it”s also one of the oldest (and therefore original) cybersecurity meetings.

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Cybersecurity #law causing #mass concerns among #foreign firms in #China

Source: National Cyber Security News

New rules have added to costs and had a big impact on how they do business, survey finds, and tax regime and land acquisition policy are also headaches

Most of the 215 foreign firms polled said the country’s tax regime, land acquisition policy and cybersecurity law were all headaches, according to a white paper and report on the business environment in China released on Thursday.

But of the three areas, it is the new cybersecurity law introduced in June that is causing “mass concerns” among foreign firms because it has greatly increased operating costs and has had a big impact on how business is done in China, said Harley Seyedin, president of AmCham South China.

“It created uncertainties within the investment community and it’s resulting in, at the minimum, postponement of some R&D investment,” Seyedin said.

“The law requires approval … to be obtained for cybersecurity, but it does not tell you where to apply, how long it takes you to apply, how long it takes for the results to come out, and what the process might be in case you want to appeal the decision,” he said. “All of these are vague but it’s going to result in .

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2nd Global Fintech & Blockchain China Summit 2018

Source: National Cyber Security News

General Cybersecurity Conference

 April 12, 2018 | Shanghai, China

Cybersecurity Conference Description

2nd Global Fintech&Blockchain China Summit 2018 will be held in Shanghai on April 12th, which is consisting of Main Conference, Parallel Session and a Conjuncted Mini Exhibition Show, more than 800 delegates from government, associations, research institutes, traditional financial insitution as well as fintech and internet finance companies, blockchain technology and industry applicatioin companies, cyptocurrency and digital asset related companiese.

The blockchain summit will discuss the real application cases and future prospect of the blockchain in areas of finance, global payment system, healthcare, energy trading, digital identity authentication, electronic record authentication, IoT, supply chain management and government governance.,etc, and address the opportunities and challenges ahead. We aim to create a global network of entrepreneurs and developers in the fast-evolving blockchain economy, to explore the new business models and unrecognized opportunities in the blockchain world, We are fully convinced that this summit will empower the creation of the new technology-driven financial eco-system and reconfiguration of the future by the blockchain technology.

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China #unveils its first #civil-military #cybersecurity innovation #center

Source: National Cyber Security – Produced By Gregory Evans

China on Tuesday unveiled the nation’s first cybersecurity innovation center developed under the national strategy of civil-military integration, amid Beijing’s call to step up its national cyber defenses.

The freshly-established center has set the ambitious goal of setting up a cutting-edge cybersecurity defense system for the military to help win future cyber wars.

It was set up under the instruction of the Central Commission for Integrated Military and Civilian Development and related military bodies, which will also supervise and manage the center during its operation by one of China’s leading cybersecurity companies, 360 Enterprise Security Group.

According to Wu Yunkun, president of the security group, the center will focus on building cyber defense systems for military-related internet services and a threat intelligence sharing mechanism for military users in the first stage.

It will work to encourage more small- and medium-sized companies to cooperate on technology R&D projects in order to guarantee the supply of cyber defense services that can meet practical combat requirements, Wu introduced.

Specifically, the center wants to set up a special fund for cybersecurity innovation investment and teams of researchers that are supported by local governments, the military, and enterprises. It is also mulling to conduct a pilot study on cyber militia construction and to set up a mechanism to offer cyber emergency response services and advanced persistent threat (APT) analysis and monitoring services to the military and local government bodies.

China has long attached significance to cybersecurity, and the eminent influence of cybersecurity in the military domain in particular has been increasingly valued by the central government.

In a strategy paper released by Cyberspace Administration of China (CAC) last December, China vowed to develop a cyber defense compatible with its international status as a major cyber power – a national goal with a development timeline by 2035.

Three months later, an international strategy document published by the Chinese foreign ministry and CAC made clear that national defense in cyberspace is one crucial part of Chinese military modernization, following the same military strategy of active defense.

“Countries like the US and Israel that are taking the lead in cyberspace development have demonstrated how cybersecurity companies can help support a nation’s national defense needs in the virtual world. In turn, the development of cyber defense can help give a boost to the whole industry,” Qi Xiangdong, Chairman of the 360 Enterprise Security Group, noted at the ceremony.

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2018 IEEE International Conference on Big Data and Smart Computing (BigComp) (CFP Shanghai, China)

Source: National Cyber Security – Produced By Gregory Evans

General Cybersecurity Conference
January 15 – 17, 2018 | Shanghai, China

Cybersecurity Conference Description 

Big data and smart computing are emerging research fields that have recently drawn much attention from computer science and information technology as well as from social sciences and other disciplines.

The goal of the International Conference on Big Data and Smart Computing (BigComp), initiated by KIISE (Korean Institute of Information Scientists and Engineers), is to provide an international forum for exchanging ideas and information on current studies, challenges, research results, system developments, and practical experiences in these emerging fields.

Following the successes of the previous BigComp conferences in Bangkok, Thailand (2014), Jeju, Korea (2015), Hong Kong, China (2016), Jeju, Korea (2017), the 2018 International Conference on Big Data and Smart Computing (BigComp 2018) will be held in Shanghai, China.

The conference is co-sponsored by IEEE and KIISE. BigComp 2018 invites authors to submit original research papers and original work-in-progress reports on big data and smart computing.

Topic Areas

The topics of interest for BigComp2018 include (but are not limited to) the following:

• Techniques, models and algorithms for big data

• Machine learning and AI for big data

• Web search and information retrieval

• Models and tools for smart computing

• Cloud and grid computing for big data

• Security and privacy for big data

• Smart devices and hardware

• Big data applications: Bioinformatics, Multimedia, Smartphones, etc.

• Tools and systems for big data

• Data mining, graph mining and data science

• Infrastructure and platform for smart computing

• Big data analytics and social media

• Hardware/software infrastructure for big data

• Mobile communications and networks

• Smart location-based services

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Why #Trump is #sticking with #Obama’s #China #hacking #deal

Source: National Cyber Security – Produced By Gregory Evans

Why #Trump is #sticking with #Obama’s #China #hacking #deal

President Donald Trump has broken with a host of Obama-era international agreements, from the Trans-Pacific Partnership to the Paris climate pact — but he’s showing every sign of sticking with a 2015 hacking accord with China.

Last month, the Trump administration quietly reaffirmed the agreement, which Republicans had initially greeted with skepticism. And business groups, cyber researchers and international policy experts say they see little reason for Trump to cancel the deal, especially as he’s pressing for China’s cooperation in curbing North Korea’s increasingly bellicose cyber and nuclear programs.

The hacking agreement is not expected to be a major talking point when Trump meets on Wednesday in Beijing with Chinese President Xi Jinping, whose country remains one of the most skilled and aggressive operators in cyberspace.

China appears to be largely complying with the 2015 deal, in which both countries pledged not to steal trade secrets from each other for the benefit of their domestic companies. That has helped calm the friction that once reigned between Washington and Beijing over cyber disputes, leaving Trump free to press his complaints with China on issues such as its protectionist regulations and unfavorable trade balance with the U.S.

“Having the cyber accord that we have helps to narrow the issues in dispute,” said Luke Dembosky, who worked on the 2015 U.S.-China cyber pact as a senior Justice Department official. “We need every bit of goodwill we can muster between our two countries on issues like North Korea. And we should, as a country, capitalize on the breakthrough that was achieved in fall of 2015.”

Perhaps most surprisingly to some, the deal has had its intended effect: Chinese-backed cyber theft of American trade secrets has dropped roughly 90 percent since the September 2015 accord, according to two leading digital security firms. Before then, analysts estimated that the thefts were costing the U.S. hundreds of billions of dollars a year.

“We saw the level of that activity drop off a cliff,” said Chris Porter, chief intelligence strategist at FireEye, which closely tracks major Chinese-linked hacking groups. “At or near zero levels.”

Those same researchers, though, caution that Chinese hacking tactics may have mutated in recent months, once again threatening American businesses through means that push the boundaries of the 2015 accord.

The Trump administration has not made strong public statements either way regarding the U.S.-China cyber pact despite jointly pledging with China in October to continue implementing the deal.

“President Trump believes strongly in protecting intellectual property rights, which are a key part of a fair and reciprocal trade policy,” White House spokesman Marc Raimondi wrote in an email. “We will be closely monitoring [China’s] adherence to both the letter and the spirit of the commitment.”

When Xi visited the White House in 2015, cyber tensions were at an all-time high between the two countries. It was widely believed that Beijing’s cyber spies had been behind the devastating theft that spring of more than 20 million sensitive U.S. government security clearance background-check files. And business groups were imploring the Obama administration to punish China over what they said was a pervasive hacking campaign to steal America’s trade secrets and erode the country’s competitive advantage, costing the U.S. up to $400 billion a year.

But instead of slapping Beijing with sanctions, Obama and Xi announced a mutual vow to end the type of theft that was enraging U.S. business leaders. Republicans — and even some Democrats — were immediately dubious that the diplomatic route would have any tangible effect on China’s behavior. And notably, the deal did not require either side to stop traditional cyber espionage, such as the theft of the U.S. background-check records.

However, just over two years later, the pact has held.

There has been a “massive reduction” in Chinese intrusions of American companies, said Dmitri Alperovitch, co-founder of the digital security firm CrowdStrike, which is working on a report analyzing China’s digital behavior since the agreement.

And it has allowed the two countries to focus more on their trade relationship, making it “a remarkable success” from that perspective, said Porter, of FireEye. “It shows that diplomacy can be used to reduce the cyber threat to Americans.”

Those who worked on the deal also believe it played a broader role in stabilizing U.S.-China relations and set a rare precedent for the international community on cyber norms, which have been notoriously difficult to pin down.

“These are two of the, if not the two, world leaders on cyber issues,” said Dembosky, now a partner at the law firm Debevoise & Plimpton. “So for them to reach any agreement on matters of cyberspace … has huge ripple effects in the international community in a positive way.”

China did not give up its expansive cyber efforts, though. Instead, the country shifted its focus to regional targets, training its digital spies on dissidents in Tibet and Hong Kong, as well as political, military and economic targets across Asia, CrowdStrike’s Alperovitch said. According to FireEye’s Porter, Chinese hackers were able to pilfer intellectual property — from other nations, like Japan — that was largely comparable to what they had been getting in the U.S.

At the same time, Xi was also restructuring his military. The increasingly powerful leader wanted to consolidate the country’s cyber army and rein in government-linked hackers moonlighting as rogue digital actors, a process FireEye detailed in a June 2016 report.

And there are recent signs that Beijing may be testing the limits of its 2015 promises.

In mid-2016, FireEye noticed that one prominent suspected Chinese hacking group had resurfaced, catching it infiltrating a U.S. information technology services firm in a likely attempt to gain access to the firm’s clients. Porter said FireEye had also discovered Beijing-linked hackers spying on corporate executives, giving them access to inside information that might eventually come in handy for Chinese investors looking to purchase an American firm or Chinese companies bidding on a U.S. project.

It’s unclear whether either strategy would technically violate the narrow terms of the 2015 agreement.

“I do think that it’s still too early to call victory here,” Alperovitch said.

Still, cyber watchers say that Trump should stick with the deal.

The U.S. gave up almost nothing in inking the agreement, they note, as it already had a long-established commitment to not steal corporate secrets for domestic economic gain. Plus, the deal established law enforcement channels to swap details on cybercrime, a valuable tool given China’s proximity to North Korea’s increasingly assertive cyber army. Researchers believe Pyongyang was behind a global malware outbreak earlier this year that froze tens of thousands of computer networks, costing businesses hundreds of millions of dollars. South Korea has also blamed its northern neighbor for the digital theft of war plans.

China may have enabled North Korea’s hacking operations by providing network bandwidth or even physical space for Pyongyang’s digital warriors, according to studies and media reports. Details are thin on what assistance China may currently provide.

“China may well be in a position to be able to provide information about North Korean cyber activities,” said Samir Jain, who helped craft the U.S.-China cyber deal as a senior director for cyber policy at the National Security Council. “To the extent that the Chinese can provide information about those actors or about servers or other infrastructure being used by North, then that would all be helpful.”

The White House also doesn’t appear eager to rock the boat over any possible noncompliance with the 2015 deal. A White House blog post about Trump’s upcoming visit to Beijing mentioned only the North Korea situation and “China’s unfair trade practices.”

Indeed, those “unfair trade practices” are where industry leaders’ concerns now lie. They worry that new Chinese cybersecurity regulations could force foreign technology companies to hand over software for “security” reviews before being allowed to enter China’s booming market. Trump recently ordered the U.S. trade representative to investigate the issue, setting up a potential showdown with Beijing on trade.

“We are at risk of a trade war,” Dembosky said. “It may be a cold trade war, but it’s certainly getting much hotter. If we don’t reach some understanding with China on the processes — and the fairness of the processes on both sides for evaluating these risks — then both counties will suffer.”

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