climate

now browsing by tag

 
 

#deepweb | Running from the storm – How Bangladesh’s climate migrants are becoming food secure – Bangladesh

Source: National Cyber Security – Produced By Gregory Evans By Rafiqul Islam BHOLA, Bangladesh, Nov 28 2019 (IPS) – It was almost a decade ago when Ruma Begum and her family left their home in Bangladesh’s coastal Tazumuddin upazila or sub-district and travelled some 50 km away to start a new life. They had been […] View full post on AmIHackerProof.com

#deepweb | Transforming Food Systems Under a Changing Climate – Financing the transformation of food systems under a changing climate: key messages – World

Source: National Cyber Security – Produced By Gregory Evans

Citation

Millan A. 2019. Financing the transformation of food systems under a changing climate: key messages. Wageningen, the Netherlands: CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS).

**Permanent link to cite or share this item: **https://hdl.handle.net/10568/105874

Abstract/Description

The global food system will need to produce food more efficiently and sustainably to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and meet the 2°C climate commitments of the Paris Agreement. As climate change affects food systems, governments, food and agriculture companies, and public and private investors need to better identify and address the numerous climate- related risks they face. This can also be an inflection point to take advantage of new investment opportunities that the transformation to low-carbon and resilient food systems presents. Climate-smart investments to transform food systems, however, are not yet at scale. This will require addressing core market failures to unlocking private sector financing from food and agriculture companies, domestic and international financial institutions, and specialized investors. Whilst this paper highlights the clear need and role for the former, it explores in greater depth innovative strategies to address the core market failures of the latter: 1) lack of deep pipeline of bankable projects, today; 2) high investment risk and lack of primary data/information asymmetries; and 3) lack of intermediation to efficiently connect different pools of capital to investment. Against this backdrop, CCAFS and its partners highlight a diverse set of policy options, innovative financial solutions, and strategies for how government, food and agriculture companies, public and private donors and investors can support the transformation to low-carbon and resilient food systems.

Source link
——————————————————————————————————

The post #deepweb | <p> Transforming Food Systems Under a Changing Climate – Financing the transformation of food systems under a changing climate: key messages – World <p> appeared first on National Cyber Security.

View full post on National Cyber Security

#deepweb | From climate mysteries to dead zones, an evolving computer model tackles Puget Sound’s eco-riddles – GeekWire

Source: National Cyber Security – Produced By Gregory Evans

The local population of Puget Sound orcas is in decline, having dropped to 73 animals. A computer model built by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is helping scientists studying industrial pollutants, one of the key threats to the killer whales’ survival. (NOAA Photo)

Puget Sound — Washington’s inland sea — is a mysterious place. It’s the southern-most fjord in the lower 48 states. It’s fed by rivers that create shallow, mucky tideflats. In other spots it plunges more than 900 feet deep, giving it oceanic traits, but it doesn’t flow freely in and out of the Pacific Ocean. The main entrance and exit into the Sound is relatively narrow and shallow, creating a sort of bathtub that curtails the exchange of seawater and wildlife.

The Sound is facing serious challenges. The beloved local orcas are in alarming decline, the human population and its polluting cars, roadways and buildings is growing, and the damaging effects of climate change loom large.

PNNL program manager Tarang Khangaonkar explains his research into the effects of climate change on Puget Sound. (GeekWire Photo / Lisa Stiffler)

But scientists are employing a sophisticated computer modeling tool to unravel some of the Puget Sound’s complex puzzles and trigger actions that can help safeguard the iconic Northwest waterway.

“We now are in a position where you can address some really important questions in Puget Sound,” said Joel Baker, director of the University of Washington’s Puget Sound Institute.

One of the more surprising and hopeful results comes from a recently published study on climate change. It predicts that the Sound could in many ways fare a bit better than the Pacific Ocean when considering the damaging effects of a warmer world.

The Salish Sea Model was built by scientists at the Seattle office of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), part of the U.S. Department of Energy. PNNL program manager Tarang Khangaonkar launched the project in 2008 in partnership with the state Department of Ecology. Their goal was to create a model that’s widely useful and built in a collaborative, transparent process.

Scientists can use the model to test theories about how chemicals and creatures move through Puget Sound, tweaking different inputs to understand past and future events. The model has been used to find conditions favorable for native sixgill sharks, guide restoration in the Stillaguamish River delta, and study oyster reproduction.

 We now are in a position where you can address some really important questions in Puget Sound.

Initial work started with a broad riddle. In recent decades, people have observed regularly occurring fish die-offs in Puget Sound. When an event strikes, dead fish litter the beaches, crabs and normally solitary rockfish cluster near shore, and scuba divers report “panting” wolf eels trying to capture enough air with their gills. Scientists knew the cause of death — the level of oxygen in the water was dropping to lethal levels — but the pattern of places experiencing “hypoxia,” or low oxygen, was puzzling.

When scientists tried to understand why some areas were harder hit with the dead zones, Khangaonkar said, “nobody could figure out why.”

Searching for the cause of suffocation

The model encompasses what’s known as the Salish Sea, which spans Puget Sound, the San Juan Islands, a strait running to the northwest tip of Washington and the waters off the east side of Vancouver Island. The researchers also included a stretch of offshore water that extends south along the Washington Coast, past the mouth of the Columbia River.

Early runs of the model could create low-oxygen conditions, but the hypoxia was everywhere, not just the observed hot spots in Hood Canal and other specific inlets and coves. The model included layers of data from multiple sources to create the tides, currents, weather, underwater geographic features, shorelines, water temperature, pH, and salinity. Ecology provided data on nutrients that flowed into Puget Sound from 99 sewage treatment plants, industrial outfalls and other points, plus 161 streams emptying into the sea.

The Salish Sea Model covers all of Puget Sound and waters stretching to the north end of Vancouver Island and past the mouth of the Columbia River. (PNNL Graphic)

But even with all of that information, the Salish Sea Model couldn’t recreate past conditions of hypoxia. Then researchers added data on the muddy, sandy bottom of Puget Sound. The model worked, revealing a key driver of hypoxia.

“Unless you take into account everything,” Khangaonkar said, “it’s not possible to guess at the reason.”

The scientists figured out that algae were reproducing in great blooms that eventually died, sank, and rotted in the sediment at the bottom of the sea. The decaying plants pulled oxygen out of the water. The result wasn’t necessarily intuitive at first. While alive, the algae released oxygen, as plants do, so they weren’t an obvious culprit for hypoxia.

That conclusion “led to quite a bit of debate,” Khangaonkar said.

But it also helped researchers think more strategically about which pollution sources need to be curbed to prevent them from essentially fertilizing the algae with nutrients. That includes sewage treatment plants, leaking shoreline septic systems, and lawn chemicals. The model highlighted the fact that Puget Sound is not well flushed by water from the ocean, trapping and recycling pollutants in the inland sea.

Officials with Ecology are using these results to update pollution regulations based on scientific research.

A red-orange algae bloom in Edmonds, Wash. in 2013. (Washington State Department of Ecology, photo submitted by Jeri Cusimano)

“This model is not a black box,” said Cristiana Figueroa-Kaminsky, a pollution and modeling manager for Ecology.

It’s based on open-source code with input from numerous agencies and academic institutions, she said.

The UW’s Baker agreed that it’s a robust model, and added that the university also has the LiveOcean model that can make limited forecasts addressing different issues in the Sound and Pacific.

“They’re as good as any models in the world,” Baker said.

‘Without the numbers you fear’

With the success of the oxygen-level work, Khangaonkar and his team were ready to tackle a bigger question: What will happen to Puget Sound as the planet keeps warming?

The researchers decided to gaze decades ahead to 2095. They added information from a national model and ran the simulation using a trajectory that assumes humankind follows a worst-case scenario path and does little to reduce global warming pollution.

Again, the model generated some surprising predictions.

Using PNNL’s Salish Sea Model, scientists ran projections for the local impacts of climate change by 2095. While waters are generally warmer, the average surface temperatures in Puget Sound are expected to warm less than the Pacific Ocean (top images). But more shallow areas, such as the mouth of the Snohomish River (lower images), will warm more dramatically. RCP 8.5 refers to the scenario used in the model, which simulates a worst-case scenario for warming. (PNNL Graphic)

Puget Sound’s water conditions are greatly impacted by the melting snowpack of surrounding mountains. That water flows from rivers, flushing the inland sea. Warmer weather is shrinking the annual snowpack and reducing its spring and summer runoff. Experts feared that the circulation of the Sound will be disrupted.

“If in the future the flushing strength were to go down, it would lead to catastrophic failure of our ecosystem,” Khangaonkar said.

Because Puget Sound is a relatively small body of water, one might expect it would fare worse than the Pacific Ocean. But the model, pulling together effects of sea level rise, changes in salinity and other factors, predicted a future where the water in Puget Sound’s deep basins would continue circulating, churning the water. That would keep it cooler, less acidic and more oxygenated than the Pacific.

“Climate change brings in a lot of counterintuitive findings,” Baker said. Flooding, however, is another concern.

Khangaonkar and his team published their climate change results in May in a scientific journal.

“Without the numbers you fear… what is it going do to us?” he said. The model gives a glimpse. “Rather than speculate, you can just run it out and get the answer.”

Solving a toxic riddle

For roughly two decades, scientists Jim West and Sandie O’Neill have been sampling Puget Sound wildlife, tracking the amount of pollution they carry. A main focus has been PCBs, a family of long-lasting industrial chemicals banned 40 years ago. Since then, millions of dollars have been spent scrubbing them from Puget Sound.

And yet they’re still here.

PCBs, or polychlorinated biphenyls, show up in resident wildlife, including Pacific herring, Chinook salmon, harbor seals and orcas. What’s particularly weird about the PCBs is that their levels are holding steady or even increasing in some marine creatures, while other pollutants are declining. Although the concentrations of the PCBs in the sediment and water are so low they’re sometimes undetectable, they’re much higher in the fish, seals and whales. The math doesn’t add up.

“Something is happening where the PCBs are getting into the environment and an awful lot of them are ending up in the pelagic [or marine] food web,” said O’Neill, who works with West at the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

Researchers collecting samples for research on the levels of pollutants in Puget Sound fish. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Photo)

The chemicals can disrupt the growth of Chinook salmon, the local orcas’ favorite food, and are believed to threaten the killer whales directly by harming their immune systems and ability to reproduce.

One of the main theories of how toxics get into the marine food web is that chemicals settle into the sediment, get consumed by microscopic organisms, and move their way up the food chain.

But it seems that something else is happening in Puget Sound.

It appears that upland sources of PCBs found in sources such as industrial caulk, electrical transformers, and contaminated soils are still being washed into the sea. West and O’Neill suspect that some of the PCBs are getting sucked into the food chain straight from the water before they even settle into the mud.

There are a couple of ways the PCBs could move from the open water into marine life. The chemicals are lipophilic, meaning they love to stick to fats, which includes the outside of bacteria and algae. The PCBs can also get sucked up by microscopic zooplankton floating in the water column.

Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife researchers Stefanie Karney (left) and Laurie Niewolny processing juvenile Chinook salmon at the department’s Marine Resources Laboratory in Olympia, Wash. (Dept. of Fish and Wildlife Photo)

As those tiny organisms are eaten by small fish that are eaten by bigger fish that are eaten by marine mammals, the PCBs move through the food chain to larger predators. Their levels build as the toxics are stored in body fat, and mothers can pass PCBs to their babies through their milk. When the animals die and decay, the PCBs are recycled back into the food chain via smaller creatures.

While the hypothesis makes sense, scientists need more data to prove it. They’re eager to pinpoint the pollution sources and pathways of movement in order to close the PCB tap. And for local orcas, whose population has sunk from highs in the 200s to just 73 animals, time is running out.

When Khangaonkar suggested a collaboration, West and O’Neill jumped at the chance. They now have results for the first phase of their research, which included work with UW scientists, and are starting another study correlating the model with pollutants in plankton.

The Salish Sea Model has the potential to “inform us about where the PCBs are coming into the food web, then you can do something about them,” O’Neill said. It could identify hot spots for cleanup that could most benefit marine life. “You can’t clean up the whole of the Puget Sound basin,” she added. “It’s too much.”

It’s just the kind of project that Khangaonkar gets excited about.

“We have developed this [model] for everybody to be able to use,” he said. “And when folks are interested in using it, there is a strong commitment to actually work with them and make it happen.”

Editor’s Note: Funding for GeekWire’s Impact Series is provided by the Singh Family Foundation in support of public service journalism. GeekWire editors and reporters operate independently and maintain full editorial control over the content.

Source link
——————————————————————————————————

The post #deepweb | <p> From climate mysteries to dead zones, an evolving computer model tackles Puget Sound’s eco-riddles – GeekWire <p> appeared first on National Cyber Security.

View full post on National Cyber Security

#hacking | Scott Morrison says drought the Coalition’s ‘first call’ – but makes no mention of climate | Australia news

Source: National Cyber Security – Produced By Gregory Evans

Scott Morrison has indicated the federal government might be prepared to commit extra relief funding to drought-stricken communities, reaffirming the drought is the government’s top priority.

In a triumphal speech to the Liberal party’s federal council in Canberra on Saturday, Morrison again said the drought was “the most pressing and biggest call on our budget”.

“It is the first cab off the rank, the first thing we sit together and say, ‘Once we have done everything we can in this area, then we can consider other priorities’.

“It is the biggest call on the budget because it is the most pressing, the rock I’m going to put in the jar first. It is the first call because that is what is needed in our rural and regional communities. They know we cannot make it rain and they know we cannot make it like it was before the drought.”

The prime minister did not mention the climate crisis while detailing the government’s three-phase drought response package thus far: the farm household allowance for eligible farming families; the drought communities program dedicating $100m to councils affected by the drought; and long-term drought resilience plans, including money for new dams and the drought future fund.

“That is what we are doing on drought and we will keep responding,” Morrison said. “We will keep going and delivering. That is why you need resilient and strong budget. That is why we will not walk away.”

But the budget is coming under significant pressure, with a sharp downturn in the economic outlook. The IMF this week forecast a global “synchronised slowdown” of world economies, and a “precarious outlook” for recovery. Australia is forecast to grow more slowly than Greece, with 1.7% growth in 2019, a full percentage point below 2018’s 2.7%.

But the treasurer, Josh Frydenberg – currently at the G20 – has said additional drought support would not sacrifice the surplus, saying natural disasters had been taken into account when the Coalition made its pre-election pledge to return the budget to balance and then surplus next year. The midyear economic and fiscal outlook (MYEFO) will come out before Christmas. Any additional drought spending is likely to be detailed there.

The government has been criticised by Labor for moving too slowly on the drought. Accusing the government of “six years of inaction”, Labor’s Joel Fitzgibbon has called for a bipartisan drought war cabinet to be established.

“What began as crisis for our farmers fast moved to a crisis for our rural townships, which are literally running out of water,” he said. “And I fear that we now are fast approaching a threat to our food security … We need to sit the major parties down together and to start making some pretty significant decisions.”

The drought response has also been questioned by some councils, including Moyne shire in south-west Victoria, which was given $100m despite not being in drought and whose mayor said he wanted to refuse it.

“Our council has never applied for funding under this drought package or any other similar program of drought-assistance funding,” Moyne shire council mayor Mick Wolfe said.

Morrison’s speech to the party faithful in Canberra was a triumphal affair, given the occasion of the 75th anniversary of the party’s founding by Robert Menzies, the Coalition’s unexpected election win in May and his own rise to unchallenged authority within the party.

He condemned the Labor party for what he described as its “panic in a crisis” and “politics of envy”, in particular highlighting the party’s current corruption issues in NSW.

The Liberal party federal council will also debate a series of motions from various branches of the party.

The Young Liberals called on the party to “reaffirm its strong support for freedom of speech and the rule of law around the world and supports the right of the people of Hong Kong to protests peacefully in defence of those freedoms”.

The Morrison government’s rhetoric towards China has become increasingly bellicose in recent weeks: the home affairs minister, Peter Dutton, accused the Chinese Communist Party of political repression, intellectual property theft and cyber hacking; the foreign affairs minister, Marise Payne, has been forthright in her demands over detained Australian writer Yang Hengjun; while Morrison has taken an uncompromising position on China’s “developing nation” status at the WTO.

However, it’s unclear whether an overtly political motion such as the Young Liberals’ support for Hong Kong will win broader party support.

The ACT branch of the Liberal party has called on the government to “prioritise a free trade agreement with the UK over the European Union” and also wants the government to reject European demands for “geographic indicators” on food products in Australia, such as on feta, gruyere and gorgonzola cheeses.

The ACT Liberals also want investigation of “innovative financing options” for a high-speed rail linking Australia’s east-coast capitals.

And the West Australian branch want legislation mandating that public funding for both “yes” and “no” campaigns be equal at all future constitutional referenda, a legacy of the marriage equality campaign.

Source link

The post #hacking | Scott Morrison says drought the Coalition’s ‘first call’ – but makes no mention of climate | Australia news appeared first on National Cyber Security.

View full post on National Cyber Security

How climate change threats can inform cybersecurity strategies

more information on sonyhack from leading cyber security expertsSource: National Cyber Security – Produced By Gregory Evans In the cyber world, computer servers, routers, firewalls or other similar technology sit at the outermost edge, or perimeter, of a protected computer network. These cyberdevices form a boundary between vulnerable internal resources and outside networks, and hackers often focus on breaching these edge devices. For […] View full post on AmIHackerProof.com | Can You Be Hacked?

200 Coders and Hackers United to Save NASA’s Climate Data From Deletion

200 Coders and Hackers United to Save NASA’s Climate Data From DeletionSource: National Cyber Security – Produced By Gregory Evans BAGGERS AND TAGGERS With pages of climate-related documents and other environmental issues quickly disappearing from government websites, hackers, students, and scientists have decided to take it upon themselves to salvage the information that still remains. Groups in more than 20 … The post 200 Coders and […]

The post 200 Coders and Hackers United to Save NASA’s Climate Data From Deletion appeared first on AmIHackerProof.com.

View full post on AmIHackerProof.com | Can You Be Hacked?

PISA Provides Peek at How Attendance, School Climate May Affect Achievement – Rules for Engagement – Education Week

The newest results on the international PISA test show how factors like attendance and school climate correlate with academic achievement.

View full post on Education Week: Bullying







#pso #htcs #b4inc

Read More

The post PISA Provides Peek at How Attendance, School Climate May Affect Achievement – Rules for Engagement – Education Week appeared first on Parent Security Online.

View full post on Parent Security Online

Troubled by Post-Election School Climate, K-12 Groups to Issue ‘Call to Action’ – Rules for Engagement – Education Week

Several national K-12 groups will encourage schools to respond to numerous reports of violence, harassment, and intimidation that have occurred since Donald Trump’s presidential election by reaffirming “the inclusive values that are the foundation of healthy learning cultures.”

View full post on Education Week: Bullying







#pso #htcs #b4inc

Read More

The post Troubled by Post-Election School Climate, K-12 Groups to Issue ‘Call to Action’ – Rules for Engagement – Education Week appeared first on Parent Security Online.

View full post on Parent Security Online

Tackling School Climate, Student Behavior as a Route to Improvement – Education Week

Approaches that have proven effective in working with special education students and English-learners hold potential for helping all students.

View full post on Education Week: Bullying







#pso #htcs #b4inc

Read More

The post Tackling School Climate, Student Behavior as a Route to Improvement – Education Week appeared first on Parent Security Online.

View full post on Parent Security Online

New Online Tool Expands Access to School Climate Measurements – Education Week

Tracking factors like how students feel about their safety and well-being in school has been off limits to some districts. A new tool from the U.S. Department of Education will make measuring school climate widely accessible.

View full post on Education Week: Bullying







#pso #htcs #b4inc

Read More

The post New Online Tool Expands Access to School Climate Measurements – Education Week appeared first on Parent Security Online.

View full post on Parent Security Online