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Challenging #Government #Hacking: What’s at #Stake

Source: National Cyber Security – Produced By Gregory Evans

Challenging #Government #Hacking: What’s at #Stake

The FBI is making increasing use of an investigative technique that puts the public’s internet security at risk. This month, the ACLU filed amicus briefs in two cases to challenge the FBI’s use of this technique, which has significant cybersecurity implications for everyone.

The technique — government hacking — involves sending malware over the Internet to search computers remotely, often for information that is transmitted by or stored on anonymous targets’ computers. The malware can give investigators total control over a computer system. Absent extraordinary circumstances, courts should not grant this kind of power to law enforcement — much less with just a run-of-the-mill search warrant.

Malware — software designed to covertly damage a computer, take control of a system, or steal data — is not new to the federal government. The FBI has been deploying tools to search anonymous users’ computers since at least 2002. More recently, however, the FBI has expanded its use of this technique. Rather than deploying tailored malware against individual targets, the agency is now conducting “watering hole” operations that deliver malware to everyone who visits a particular webpage or pages. This can result in hundreds or thousands of computers being compromised, as well as the uncontrolled distribution of malware around the globe.

What the FBI didn’t disclose in court

This month, the ACLU filed briefs in the two cases pending before the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals that involve the most recent publicly known malware investigation, aimed at users of the Playpen website. Playpen was a site primarily dedicated to disseminating child pornography, though it also hosted some lawful activities like chat and fiction forums. The FBI learned of Playpen, seized the server, and then actually ran the site out of its Virginia offices for two weeks. During that time, the federal government reportedly became one of the largest purveyors in the world of child pornography.  

The FBI took this step in an effort to identify people who visited the site, since visitors were using a privacy-protective web browser called Tor to mask their IP addresses, and thus their identities. (Playpen was designed so that only people using Tor could visit it. The U.S. government originally funded Tor, which serves as an essential tool for activism and free speech across the world. Journalists, bloggers, whistleblowers, human rights workers, and other activists have relied on the Tor network to avoid surveillance by potentially repressive regimes.) 

To obtain permission to deploy the malware —  to which the government gave the anodyne name “Network Investigative Technique,” or “NIT” — the government sought a warrant from a magistrate in the Eastern District of Virginia. The warrant granted the FBI permission to send computer instructions from Playpen to anyone who logged in with a user name and password. These instructions, the magistrate was told, would gather identifying information from the activating computers and send it to the FBI.

In Playpen, the FBI sought to search as many as 158,000 computersaround the world with this malware. As a result, there are now approximately 140 Playpen prosecutions for possession of child pornography wending their way through the federal courts. The ACLU has filed several other amicus briefs with the Electronic Frontier Foundation challenging Playpen searches on the grounds that a single warrant cannot lawfully authorize a search of more than 100,000 people, and that the searches unconstitutionally violated Federal Rule of Criminal Procedure 41, which at the time limited magistrates’ ability to authorize searches to the district in which they operate — whereas the Playpen searches were global in scope. (Rule 41 has since been modifiedand now removes that procedural obstacle for the government to hack remotely.)

In the  briefs we filed with several of our affiliates located in the Ninth Circuit this month — United States v. Tippens and United States v. Henderson — we argue that the FBI failed in its duty of candor to the magistrate judge, rendering the searches unconstitutional. What the FBI did not tell the magistrate judge, among other things, is that for its NIT to work, it had to force visitors’ computers to do something that Tor and every other web browser is not supposed to do — download, install, and run the code transmitted by a webpage. To get that to happen, the NIT used exploit code — software designed to take advantage of a flaw in the way the Tor browser works. Further, because the Tor browser runs on the Firefox Mozilla code, this exploit likely worked on millions of Firefox users.

In other words, the government became a hacker, sending exploit code around the country and the world, compromising browser security and searching computers for information. And astoundingly, it didn’t tell the court that this was how the NIT worked. It even kept secret from the magistrate the very fact that it was, through its exploit, planning to take advantage of a vulnerability in Tor (and likely Firefox).

While the public doesn’t know what the vulnerability was, it likely gave the government, in Mozilla’s words, “total control” over the users’ computers. The FBI may have chosen to use that power only to collect identifying information, as it represented in the search warrant affidavit. But it could have accessed far more — and more private — information.

Without knowing that the government’s malware contained an exploit, the court was not in a good position to closely supervise the computer searches that the FBI’s computer instructions conducted. The magistrate likely had no idea she should police the search to ensure that the government would not misuse its capabilities to search private data for which it had no probable cause. Where searches are particularly intrusive (and especially when they involve digital media like computers), Fourth Amendment case law recommends heightened standards of proof for issuing warrants, search protocols, destruction of unrelated materials, and more to ensure that legitimate government searches do not metastasize into fishing expeditions. The magistrate couldn’t have known that she might want to impose such safeguards in this case.

How FBI hacking can hurt the public

Beyond just the facts of this case, the government’s development, storage, and use of exploits create computer security risks for the public that cannot be mitigated by the warrant process. The government may lose control of malware if an insider leaks or sells the tools, if the government itself is hacked, or if a malware target identifies and publishes the code. Once a hacking tool has been disclosed outside the government, malicious actors have a window of opportunity to use it for their own nefarious purposes.

We know the risk that the government will lose control of exploits is real, because we’ve seen it happen a number of times:

In 2013, the FBI deployed malware on multiple websites hosted by a company called Freedom Hosting. This malware similarly took advantage of a Firefox security vulnerability to identify users of Tor. Innocent individuals who visited the targeted Freedom Hosting sites — which included TorMail, an encrypted email service used by all kinds of people all over the world to ensure privacy in their communications — noticed the hidden computer instructions embedded in the sites, and within days, the code was being “circulated and dissected all over the net.” Eventually, the same attack showed up “in the wild”, using essentially the same exploit the government used to compromise Freedom Hosting visitors to hack users of the Tor browser more widely.
The government’s exploits also can be stolen. In 2016, the public learned that an entity calling itself the Shadow Brokers obtained National Security Agency malware from an external NSA “staging server.” Following some initial attempts to sell the exploits, the Shadow Brokers dumped dozens of NSA hacking tools online for free in April 2017. One of the tools the Shadow Brokers released — called EternalBlue — exploited a flaw in Microsoft software. Once released, the tool was repurposed into a virulent piece of ransomware called WannaCry, which infected hundreds of thousands of computer systems worldwide in May 2017.
The very next month, another malware attack began spreading internationally after initially hitting critical infrastructure in Ukraine. Similar to WannaCry, the worm, dubbed NotPetya, made use of EternalBlue as well as another NSA exploit, called EternalRomance, also released by the Shadow Brokers. WannaCry and NotPetya infected such crucial systems as hospitals, power companies, shipping, and banking, endangering human life as well as economic activity.
Courts have said that dangerous tools used to effectuate otherwise lawful searches — tools like flashbang grenades and battering rams — can be unreasonable under the Fourth Amendment. Government malware is another such tool. Some investigative techniques are just too dangerous to use.

Cybersecurity is hard, and we are not doing a very good job of protecting the systems that we rely on. This task gets even harder if the government is an active attacker on the network with a vested interest in keeping computers insecure in case an investigator wants to conduct a search. If we aren’t careful, this powerful tool that the FBI now uses, like other powerful tools, will eventually trickle down to state and local police departments.

The government should be fighting to secure computers — not to hack them or to stockpile exploit codes that can be lost or stolen, and then misused and abused. As we told the Ninth Circuit, the Fourth Amendment needs to protect the public’s privacy and security. Secretive and unregulated government hacking endangers both.

The post Challenging #Government #Hacking: What’s at #Stake appeared first on National Cyber Security Ventures.

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What’s Missing From the Discussion of Teacher Shortages? A Researcher Explains – Teaching Now – Education Week Teacher

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The post What’s Missing From the Discussion of Teacher Shortages? A Researcher Explains – Teaching Now – Education Week Teacher appeared first on Parent Security Online.

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After Friedrichs, What’s Next for Teachers’ Unions in the Supreme Court?

Other cases involving public employee unions and agency fees for non-members are in the pipeline, and could reach the court in a year or two.

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The post After Friedrichs, What’s Next for Teachers’ Unions in the Supreme Court? appeared first on Parent Security Online.

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What’s the Best Game Console for Kids?

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Woman, 24, charged with murder, child abuse, leaving accident scene in Strip crash NDN-VIDEO-40192923148.movNDN-VIDEO-40192923148.movDozens Of Pedestrians Mowed Down In Vegas Strip Hit-And-Run (CBS Miami/Inform)NDN-VIDEO-40192923149.movNDN-VIDEO-40192923149.movWitness: I saw some bodies just flying in the air (CNN)1004411555_strip_folo-dec_5.jpg Lakeisha Holloway is shown in a photo from her Facebook page. Holloway is accused of driving her Oldsmobile onto a Strip sidewalk Sunday, killing one and injuring dozens of others. Photo Facebook 1004411555_strip_folo-dec_2.jpg Police investigate the scene of an accident on the Planet Hollywood hotel-casino that left one person dead and 37 injured after a car plowed into a group of pedestrians Sunday, Dec. 20, 2015. Rachel Aston/Las Vegas Review-Journal Follow @rookie__rae 1004411555_strip_folo-dec_6.jpg Lakeisha Holloway is shown in a photo from her Facebook page. Holloway is accused of driving her Oldsmobile onto a Strip sidewalk Sunday, killing one and injuring dozens of others. Photo Facebook 1004411555_strip_folo-dec_3.jpg Police investigate the scene on the Las Vegas Strip outside Paris Las Vegas on Sunday, Dec. 20, 2015, after a car plowed into pedestrians on the sidewalk, killing one person and injuring 37 people, six critically. Rachel Aston/Las Vegas Review-Journal Follow @rookie__rae 1004411555_strip_folo-dec_4.jpg Lakeisha Holloway is shown in a photo from her Facebook page. Holloway is accused of driving her Oldsmobile onto a Strip sidewalk Sunday, killing one and injuring dozens of others. Photo Facebook 1004398647_strip_crash_1_14_0.jpg Police investigate the scene of an accident on the Strip in Las Vegas that left one person dead and 37 injured after a car plowed into a group of pedestrians on Sunday, Dec. 20, 2015. Rachel Aston/Las Vegas Review-Journal Follow @rookie__rae 1004398647_strip_crash_12_7_0.jpg Police investigate the scene of an accident on the Strip in Las Vegas that left one person dead and 37 injured after a car plowed into a group of pedestrians the evening of Sunday, Dec. 20, 2015. Rachel Aston/Las Vegas Review-Journal Follow @rookie__rae 1004411555_strip_folo-dec23.jpg Police investigate the scene on the Las Vegas Strip outside Paris Las Vegas on Sunday, Dec. 20, 2015, after a car plowed into pedestrians on the sidewalk, killing one person and injuring 37 people, six critically. Rachel Aston/Las Vegas Review-Journal Follow @rookie__rae LakeishaHolloway_4.jpg LakeishaHolloway_4.jpg STRIP20FATAL20PHOTOS10.JPG Police investigate the scene of a crash on the Strip in Las Vegas that left one person dead and 37 injured after a car plowed into a group of pedestrians the evening of Sunday, Dec. 20, 2015. Rachel Aston/Las Vegas Review-Journal Follow @rookie__rae STRIP20FATAL20PHOTOS15A.JPG Police investigate the scene of a crash on the Strip in Las Vegas that left one person dead and 37 injured after a car plowed into a group of pedestrians Sunday, Dec. 20, 2015. (Rachel Aston/Las Vegas Review-Journal Follow @rookie__rae) STRIP20FATAL20PHOTOS16.JPG Police investigate the scene of a crash on the Strip in Las Vegas that left one person dead and 37 injured after a car plowed into a group of pedestrians Sunday, Dec. 20, 2015. (Rachel Aston/Las Vegas Review-Journal Follow @rookie__rae) STRIP20FATAL20PHOTOS13.JPG Bystanders watch as police investigate the scene of a crash on the Strip in Las Vegas that left one person dead and 37 injured after a car plowed into a group of pedestrians the evening of Sunday, Dec. 20, 2015. Rachel Aston/Las Vegas Review-Journal Follow @rookie__rae STRIP20FATAL20PHOTOS18.JPG Police investigate the scene of a crash on the Strip in Las Vegas that left one person dead and 37 injured after a car plowed into a group of pedestrians Sunday, Dec. 20, 2015. (Rachel Aston/Las Vegas Review-Journal Follow @rookie__rae) STRIP20FATAL20PHOTOS12.JPG Bystanders watch as police investigate the scene of a crash on the Strip in Las Vegas that left one person dead and 37 injured after a car plowed into a group of pedestrians the evening of Sunday, Dec. 20, 2015. Rachel Aston/Las Vegas Review-Journal Follow @rookie__rae STRIP20FATAL20PHOTOS1720copy.jpg Police investigate the scene of a crash on the Strip in Las Vegas that left one person dead and 37 injured after a car plowed into a group of pedestrians Sunday, Dec. 20, 2015. (Rachel Aston/Las Vegas Review-Journal Follow @rookie__rae) stripfatalone.jpg Police investigate the scene of a crash on the Strip in Las Vegas that left one person dead and 37 injured after a car plowed into a group of pedestrians Sunday, Dec. 20, 2015. (Rachel Aston/Las Vegas Review-Journal Follow @rookie__rae) STRIP20FATAL20PHOTOS03.JPG Metro Capt. Peter Bofelli briefs the media about a crash on the Strip in Las Vegas that left one person dead and 37 injured after a car plowed into a group of pedestrians the evening of Sunday, Dec. 20, 2015. Rachel Aston/Las Vegas Review-Journal Follow @rookie__rae STRIP20FATAL20PHOTOS06.JPG Metro Deputy Chief Brett Zimmerman briefs the media about a crash on the Strip in Las Vegas that left one person dead and 37 injured after a car plowed into a group of pedestrians the evening of Sunday, Dec. 20, 2015. Rachel Aston/Las Vegas Review-Journal Follow @rookie__rae STRIP20FATAL20PHOTOS01.JPG Police investigate the scene of a crash on the Strip in Las Vegas that left one person dead and 37 injured after a car plowed into a group of pedestrians the evening of Sunday, Dec. 20, 2015. Rachel Aston/Las Vegas Review-Journal Follow @rookie__rae STRIP20FATAL20PHOTOS07.JPG Police Lt. Dan McGrath briefs the media about a crash on the Strip in Las Vegas that left one person dead and 37 injured after a car plowed into a group of pedestrians the evening of Sunday, Dec. 20, 2015. Rachel Aston/Las Vegas Review-Journal Follow @rookie__rae imagevideo Related links Car plows into pedestrians near Planet Hollywood, killing one, injuring 37 — VIDEO Arrest report, sheriff provide details of Strip crash that left 1 dead, dozens injured By Kimberly De La Cruz and David Ferrara Las Vegas Review-Journal Lakeisha Holloway’s path to the Strip seems to have passed out of homelessness and back again. And now the woman accused of driving her Oldsmobile onto a busy sidewalk Sunday, killing one and injuring dozens of others, faces a murder charge. On Tuesday, the Clark County district attorney’s office charged Holloway, 24, with one count each of murder with a deadly weapon; child abuse, neglect, or endangerment; and leaving the scene of an accident. Her first court appearance is scheduled for 8 a.m. today, the office said in a Tuesday morning news release. Not long ago, Holloway had seemed to be turning her life around. CNN reported an Oregon nonprofit organization gave Holloway a role model award in 2012. But on surveillance video taken Sunday,a source close to the investigation said, Holloway is seen driving her Oldsmobile along the Strip, creeping along with the flow of traffic, before suddenly accelerating and turning right onto the sidewalk in front of Planet Hollywood Resort. Pedestrians headed south scattered, but many of those walking north never saw Holloway’s car, as they were struck from behind. Holloway drove through the crosswalk in front of Paris Las Vegas and careened into a light pole. Jessica Valenzuela was trapped under the Oldsmobile for at least 200 yards as pedestrians ran alongside, banging on the car and trying to get Holloway to stop, the source said. Valenzuela, 32, of Buckeye, Ariz., died at University Medical Center. The Clark County coroner’s office did not determine the cause and manner of her death Tuesday. A crowdfunding campaign set up for Valenzuela described her as a wife and mother of three and had already raised more than $33,800 as of 4 p.m. Tuesday. Thirty-five people were injured in the crash, three of whom had critical head injuries, Clark County Sheriff Joe Lombardo said. Most of the injured were taken to Sunrise Hospital and Medical Center and UMC. Some of them were college athletes who had come to compete in the Wartburg Desert Duals wrestling tournament held annually in Las Vegas. Two of the teams, Pacific University of Oregon, and Delaware Valley University, pulled out of the competition Monday as four Pacific team members were injured and five Delaware Valley athletes were reported injured. Holloway told police that she remembered a body bouncing off her windshield, breaking it. She told police she was not on drugs or alcohol, according to the arrest report. Blood samples were taken from Holloway, and although she did not demonstrate signs of being under the influence of alcohol when she was arrested, she may have been on stimulants, the report said. Authorities are expecting results of Holloway’s drug test to be returned soon. Holloway’s lawyer, Deputy Public Defender Scott Coffee, said that her status at the jail “speaks to her mental state.” Of the allegations, he said “everybody realizes this is a tragic event,” but declined to comment further. As of Tuesday evening, two people remained in critical condition and three others were listed as serious, UMC spokeswoman Danita Cohen said. Metro officer Michael Rodriguez said Holloway is in medically restricted custody at the Clark County Detention Center, which could mean she is injured, needs medical attention or is suicidal. There is no designated “suicide watch,” Rodriguez said, and if someone in custody showed signs of being suicidal, “we would not disclose that.” Holloway was taken into custody Sunday without incident at the Tuscany, where Lombardo on Monday said she left her daughter in the car and told a valet to call the police because she had hit several people on the Strip. The 3-year-old child, who wasn’t hurt in the crash, was taken from the Tuscany, on the corner of Flamingo Road and Koval Lane, and into state custody at Child Haven, Lombardo said. “Generally speaking, when a child comes into our custody, we make contact with the parent, if available, to determine if there are relatives or ‘fictive kin’ (people who have a relationship with the child) who may be appropriate for the child’s placement,” Clark County spokesman Erik Pappa wrote in an email Tuesday. When asked whether the girl remained in state custody Tuesday, Pappa said he “can’t confirm much of anything.” It is unclear whether she has been placed with family, but Lombardo said officials were working to find her father. Las Vegas police are framing the incident as intentional. Lombardo said police do not know Holloway’s motive. Holloway’s fortunes seemed brighter not long ago, according to CNN. The nonprofit Portland Opportunities Industrial Center gave Holloway its C.A.R.E. Role Model Award in 2012. The center helps at-risk youth with education and career training. In a center video for that year, Holloway said she’d been homeless in high school, put out of the house during her high school freshman year by her mother. Holloway said her grades and attendance suffered, and by the end of that school year, her GPA was 1.41. But she turned things around. “I beat the odds and was the first of my family and my circle to graduate high school,” she said, adding that she graduated with a 3.4 GPA and $17,000 in scholarship money. Holloway said she was also the first in her family to go to college. Later, she landed a job at the U.S. Forest Service. “Boy, did I come a long ways,” Holloway said on the video. “I was a scared little girl who knew that there was more to life outside of crime, drug addiction, lower income, alcoholism, being undereducated — all of which I grew up being familiar with.” Las Vegas police don’t think Sunday’s crash was an act of terrorism, but Lombardo said they can’t rule it out fully until they know more about Holloway. A national background check turned up no prior arrests for her. Investigators determined that Holloway has been in Las Vegas for about a week, living in her car with her daughter. Holloway told police that security guards ran her off everywhere she stopped to get some sleep in her car. She ended up on the Strip, “a place she did not want to be,” and wouldn’t explain why she drove onto the sidewalk, according to the arrest record. In the release announcing the charges, Clark County District Attorney Steve Wolfson expressed sympathy for the victims and their families. “This is a horrendous and inexcusable act that has needlessly and tragically impacted countless lives,” he wrote. “I am confident that, as the investigation unfolds, we will be filing many more charges against Ms. Holloway.” — Contact Kimberly De La Cruz at kdelacruz@reviewjournal.com or 702-383-0381. Find her on Twitter: @KimberlyinLV. Contact reporter David Ferrara at dferrara@reviewjournal.com or 702-380-1039. Find him on Twitter @RandomPoker. Las Vegas Review-Journal writers Ricardo Torres and Matthew Crowley contributed to this report. 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Lakeisha Holloway’s path to the Strip seems to have passed out of homelessness and back again. And now the woman accused of driving her Oldsmobile onto a busy sidewalk Sunday, killing one and injuring dozens of others, faces a murder charge.

On Tuesday, the Clark County district attorney’s office charged Holloway, 24, with one count each of murder with a deadly weapon; child abuse, neglect, or endangerment; and leaving the scene of an accident.

Her first court appearance is scheduled for 8 a.m. today, the office said in a Tuesday morning news release.

Not long ago, Holloway had seemed to be turning her life around.

Read More

The post Woman, 24, charged with murder, child abuse, leaving accident scene in Strip crash NDN-VIDEO-40192923148.movNDN-VIDEO-40192923148.movDozens Of Pedestrians Mowed Down In Vegas Strip Hit-And-Run (CBS Miami/Inform)NDN-VIDEO-40192923149.movNDN-VIDEO-40192923149.movWitness: I saw some bodies just flying in the air (CNN)1004411555_strip_folo-dec_5.jpg Lakeisha Holloway is shown in a photo from her Facebook page. Holloway is accused of driving her Oldsmobile onto a Strip sidewalk Sunday, killing one and injuring dozens of others. Photo Facebook 1004411555_strip_folo-dec_2.jpg Police investigate the scene of an accident on the Planet Hollywood hotel-casino that left one person dead and 37 injured after a car plowed into a group of pedestrians Sunday, Dec. 20, 2015. Rachel Aston/Las Vegas Review-Journal Follow @rookie__rae 1004411555_strip_folo-dec_6.jpg Lakeisha Holloway is shown in a photo from her Facebook page. Holloway is accused of driving her Oldsmobile onto a Strip sidewalk Sunday, killing one and injuring dozens of others. Photo Facebook 1004411555_strip_folo-dec_3.jpg Police investigate the scene on the Las Vegas Strip outside Paris Las Vegas on Sunday, Dec. 20, 2015, after a car plowed into pedestrians on the sidewalk, killing one person and injuring 37 people, six critically. Rachel Aston/Las Vegas Review-Journal Follow @rookie__rae 1004411555_strip_folo-dec_4.jpg Lakeisha Holloway is shown in a photo from her Facebook page. Holloway is accused of driving her Oldsmobile onto a Strip sidewalk Sunday, killing one and injuring dozens of others. Photo Facebook 1004398647_strip_crash_1_14_0.jpg Police investigate the scene of an accident on the Strip in Las Vegas that left one person dead and 37 injured after a car plowed into a group of pedestrians on Sunday, Dec. 20, 2015. Rachel Aston/Las Vegas Review-Journal Follow @rookie__rae 1004398647_strip_crash_12_7_0.jpg Police investigate the scene of an accident on the Strip in Las Vegas that left one person dead and 37 injured after a car plowed into a group of pedestrians the evening of Sunday, Dec. 20, 2015. Rachel Aston/Las Vegas Review-Journal Follow @rookie__rae 1004411555_strip_folo-dec23.jpg Police investigate the scene on the Las Vegas Strip outside Paris Las Vegas on Sunday, Dec. 20, 2015, after a car plowed into pedestrians on the sidewalk, killing one person and injuring 37 people, six critically. Rachel Aston/Las Vegas Review-Journal Follow @rookie__rae LakeishaHolloway_4.jpg LakeishaHolloway_4.jpg STRIP20FATAL20PHOTOS10.JPG Police investigate the scene of a crash on the Strip in Las Vegas that left one person dead and 37 injured after a car plowed into a group of pedestrians the evening of Sunday, Dec. 20, 2015. Rachel Aston/Las Vegas Review-Journal Follow @rookie__rae STRIP20FATAL20PHOTOS15A.JPG Police investigate the scene of a crash on the Strip in Las Vegas that left one person dead and 37 injured after a car plowed into a group of pedestrians Sunday, Dec. 20, 2015. (Rachel Aston/Las Vegas Review-Journal Follow @rookie__rae) STRIP20FATAL20PHOTOS16.JPG Police investigate the scene of a crash on the Strip in Las Vegas that left one person dead and 37 injured after a car plowed into a group of pedestrians Sunday, Dec. 20, 2015. (Rachel Aston/Las Vegas Review-Journal Follow @rookie__rae) STRIP20FATAL20PHOTOS13.JPG Bystanders watch as police investigate the scene of a crash on the Strip in Las Vegas that left one person dead and 37 injured after a car plowed into a group of pedestrians the evening of Sunday, Dec. 20, 2015. Rachel Aston/Las Vegas Review-Journal Follow @rookie__rae STRIP20FATAL20PHOTOS18.JPG Police investigate the scene of a crash on the Strip in Las Vegas that left one person dead and 37 injured after a car plowed into a group of pedestrians Sunday, Dec. 20, 2015. (Rachel Aston/Las Vegas Review-Journal Follow @rookie__rae) STRIP20FATAL20PHOTOS12.JPG Bystanders watch as police investigate the scene of a crash on the Strip in Las Vegas that left one person dead and 37 injured after a car plowed into a group of pedestrians the evening of Sunday, Dec. 20, 2015. Rachel Aston/Las Vegas Review-Journal Follow @rookie__rae STRIP20FATAL20PHOTOS1720copy.jpg Police investigate the scene of a crash on the Strip in Las Vegas that left one person dead and 37 injured after a car plowed into a group of pedestrians Sunday, Dec. 20, 2015. (Rachel Aston/Las Vegas Review-Journal Follow @rookie__rae) stripfatalone.jpg Police investigate the scene of a crash on the Strip in Las Vegas that left one person dead and 37 injured after a car plowed into a group of pedestrians Sunday, Dec. 20, 2015. (Rachel Aston/Las Vegas Review-Journal Follow @rookie__rae) STRIP20FATAL20PHOTOS03.JPG Metro Capt. Peter Bofelli briefs the media about a crash on the Strip in Las Vegas that left one person dead and 37 injured after a car plowed into a group of pedestrians the evening of Sunday, Dec. 20, 2015. Rachel Aston/Las Vegas Review-Journal Follow @rookie__rae STRIP20FATAL20PHOTOS06.JPG Metro Deputy Chief Brett Zimmerman briefs the media about a crash on the Strip in Las Vegas that left one person dead and 37 injured after a car plowed into a group of pedestrians the evening of Sunday, Dec. 20, 2015. Rachel Aston/Las Vegas Review-Journal Follow @rookie__rae STRIP20FATAL20PHOTOS01.JPG Police investigate the scene of a crash on the Strip in Las Vegas that left one person dead and 37 injured after a car plowed into a group of pedestrians the evening of Sunday, Dec. 20, 2015. Rachel Aston/Las Vegas Review-Journal Follow @rookie__rae STRIP20FATAL20PHOTOS07.JPG Police Lt. Dan McGrath briefs the media about a crash on the Strip in Las Vegas that left one person dead and 37 injured after a car plowed into a group of pedestrians the evening of Sunday, Dec. 20, 2015. Rachel Aston/Las Vegas Review-Journal Follow @rookie__rae imagevideo Related links Car plows into pedestrians near Planet Hollywood, killing one, injuring 37 — VIDEO Arrest report, sheriff provide details of Strip crash that left 1 dead, dozens injured By Kimberly De La Cruz and David Ferrara Las Vegas Review-Journal Lakeisha Holloway’s path to the Strip seems to have passed out of homelessness and back again. And now the woman accused of driving her Oldsmobile onto a busy sidewalk Sunday, killing one and injuring dozens of others, faces a murder charge. On Tuesday, the Clark County district attorney’s office charged Holloway, 24, with one count each of murder with a deadly weapon; child abuse, neglect, or endangerment; and leaving the scene of an accident. Her first court appearance is scheduled for 8 a.m. today, the office said in a Tuesday morning news release. Not long ago, Holloway had seemed to be turning her life around. CNN reported an Oregon nonprofit organization gave Holloway a role model award in 2012. But on surveillance video taken Sunday,a source close to the investigation said, Holloway is seen driving her Oldsmobile along the Strip, creeping along with the flow of traffic, before suddenly accelerating and turning right onto the sidewalk in front of Planet Hollywood Resort. Pedestrians headed south scattered, but many of those walking north never saw Holloway’s car, as they were struck from behind. Holloway drove through the crosswalk in front of Paris Las Vegas and careened into a light pole. Jessica Valenzuela was trapped under the Oldsmobile for at least 200 yards as pedestrians ran alongside, banging on the car and trying to get Holloway to stop, the source said. Valenzuela, 32, of Buckeye, Ariz., died at University Medical Center. The Clark County coroner’s office did not determine the cause and manner of her death Tuesday. A crowdfunding campaign set up for Valenzuela described her as a wife and mother of three and had already raised more than $33,800 as of 4 p.m. Tuesday. Thirty-five people were injured in the crash, three of whom had critical head injuries, Clark County Sheriff Joe Lombardo said. Most of the injured were taken to Sunrise Hospital and Medical Center and UMC. Some of them were college athletes who had come to compete in the Wartburg Desert Duals wrestling tournament held annually in Las Vegas. Two of the teams, Pacific University of Oregon, and Delaware Valley University, pulled out of the competition Monday as four Pacific team members were injured and five Delaware Valley athletes were reported injured. Holloway told police that she remembered a body bouncing off her windshield, breaking it. She told police she was not on drugs or alcohol, according to the arrest report. Blood samples were taken from Holloway, and although she did not demonstrate signs of being under the influence of alcohol when she was arrested, she may have been on stimulants, the report said. Authorities are expecting results of Holloway’s drug test to be returned soon. Holloway’s lawyer, Deputy Public Defender Scott Coffee, said that her status at the jail “speaks to her mental state.” Of the allegations, he said “everybody realizes this is a tragic event,” but declined to comment further. As of Tuesday evening, two people remained in critical condition and three others were listed as serious, UMC spokeswoman Danita Cohen said. Metro officer Michael Rodriguez said Holloway is in medically restricted custody at the Clark County Detention Center, which could mean she is injured, needs medical attention or is suicidal. There is no designated “suicide watch,” Rodriguez said, and if someone in custody showed signs of being suicidal, “we would not disclose that.” Holloway was taken into custody Sunday without incident at the Tuscany, where Lombardo on Monday said she left her daughter in the car and told a valet to call the police because she had hit several people on the Strip. The 3-year-old child, who wasn’t hurt in the crash, was taken from the Tuscany, on the corner of Flamingo Road and Koval Lane, and into state custody at Child Haven, Lombardo said. “Generally speaking, when a child comes into our custody, we make contact with the parent, if available, to determine if there are relatives or ‘fictive kin’ (people who have a relationship with the child) who may be appropriate for the child’s placement,” Clark County spokesman Erik Pappa wrote in an email Tuesday. When asked whether the girl remained in state custody Tuesday, Pappa said he “can’t confirm much of anything.” It is unclear whether she has been placed with family, but Lombardo said officials were working to find her father. Las Vegas police are framing the incident as intentional. Lombardo said police do not know Holloway’s motive. Holloway’s fortunes seemed brighter not long ago, according to CNN. The nonprofit Portland Opportunities Industrial Center gave Holloway its C.A.R.E. Role Model Award in 2012. The center helps at-risk youth with education and career training. In a center video for that year, Holloway said she’d been homeless in high school, put out of the house during her high school freshman year by her mother. Holloway said her grades and attendance suffered, and by the end of that school year, her GPA was 1.41. But she turned things around. “I beat the odds and was the first of my family and my circle to graduate high school,” she said, adding that she graduated with a 3.4 GPA and $17,000 in scholarship money. Holloway said she was also the first in her family to go to college. Later, she landed a job at the U.S. Forest Service. “Boy, did I come a long ways,” Holloway said on the video. “I was a scared little girl who knew that there was more to life outside of crime, drug addiction, lower income, alcoholism, being undereducated — all of which I grew up being familiar with.” Las Vegas police don’t think Sunday’s crash was an act of terrorism, but Lombardo said they can’t rule it out fully until they know more about Holloway. A national background check turned up no prior arrests for her. Investigators determined that Holloway has been in Las Vegas for about a week, living in her car with her daughter. Holloway told police that security guards ran her off everywhere she stopped to get some sleep in her car. She ended up on the Strip, “a place she did not want to be,” and wouldn’t explain why she drove onto the sidewalk, according to the arrest record. In the release announcing the charges, Clark County District Attorney Steve Wolfson expressed sympathy for the victims and their families. “This is a horrendous and inexcusable act that has needlessly and tragically impacted countless lives,” he wrote. “I am confident that, as the investigation unfolds, we will be filing many more charges against Ms. Holloway.” — Contact Kimberly De La Cruz at kdelacruz@reviewjournal.com or 702-383-0381. Find her on Twitter: @KimberlyinLV. Contact reporter David Ferrara at dferrara@reviewjournal.com or 702-380-1039. Find him on Twitter @RandomPoker. Las Vegas Review-Journal writers Ricardo Torres and Matthew Crowley contributed to this report. Lakeisha Holloway Criminal Complaint Volunteers needed for…Police describe details of… by Taboola Sponsored Links From the Web 25 Adorable Photos That Will Melt Your Heart TheCelebrityLane Jackpot Games with Highest Chances to Win [Guide] Thedailyxpressen | PlayMillion New Investing Strategy To Wipe Out Inflation? Ultimate4Trading Toshiba’s 4K convertible is desirable but can you afford one? Tech Advisor Low Disposable Income? See How You Compare Money Advice Service 1970s Ads You Wont Believe Things Life Comment section guidelines The below comment section contains thoughts and opinions from users that in no way represent the views of the Las Vegas Review-Journal or GateHouse Media. This public platform is intended to provide a forum for users of reviewjournal.com to share ideas, express thoughtful opinions and carry the conversation beyond the article. Users must follow the guidelines under our Commenting Policy and are encouraged to use the moderation tools to help maintain civility and keep discussions on topic. by Taboola Sponsored Links From the Web 25 Adorable Photos That Will Melt Your Heart TheCelebrityLane Jackpot Games with Highest Chances to Win [Guide] Thedailyxpressen | PlayMillion New Investing Strategy To Wipe Out Inflation? 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